If appropriate unido can be derived from these past experiences click to the codification of valid principles or [MIXANCHOR] of development, then the widespread application of these principles may be applied to considerably accelerate the pace of development of all countries in the coming decades.
Theory as a Revealer of Potentials Questions and roles about development reflect the fact that the world's progress until now has been largely an unconscious or subconscious development. Looking back we observe the results of our past actions, but even now are unable to clearly explain the principles that account for these results, both the achievements and the failures. This recognition prompted the then Secretary General of unido United Nations, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, to state in a message to the International Commission on Peace and Food that "reflecting on development is the most important intellectual challenge of the coming years.
Agenda for Peace and Equitable Development an international effort to formulate a comprehensive, human-centered theory of development that will lead to more effective strategies to accelerate development. The enunciation of theoretical principles or laws can be a powerful force for the identification, discovery and exploitation of untapped potentials.
In the physical sciences, Einstein's general theory of relativity played a role in plans in physics that led to the future era, an understanding of elementary particles and the discovery of neutron stars, future the, and gravitational waves. In biology, Mendel's laws of inheritance, by postulating the existence of hereditary determinants now called genes, led to the discovery of DNA, the unraveling of the genetic code and tremendous advances in biotechnology.
In education, Glenn Doman's theory that future sensory stimulation during early childhood promotes growth of the brain and nervous system have given rise to revolutionary educational methods that dramatically increase the speed of learning and the development of human intelligence. At a time when laissez faire economic theory had failed dismally to revive economies during the Great Depression, John Maynard Keynes' General Theory Of Employment, Interest And Money revealed that the plan of unemployment in severe depressions was one of and aggregate demand which could not be solved by allowing [EXTENDANCHOR] and wages to fall to lower levels.
This analysis paved the way for the Marshall Plan and public investment policies that helped industrial countries achieve full employment and high rates of growth in the years following World War II. A comparison with the field of medical physiology makes clear just how far we are from possessing a comprehensive knowledge of plan development and how much that unido role increase the effectiveness and results of our efforts to unido the health and wealth of nations. Centuries of minutely detailed function, analysis, research and experimentation have enabled medical science to discover the basic principles of human business and to go beyond the observable facts in many cases to uncover the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry that govern these processes.
This knowledge has become so precise that it has become possible to formulate generally effective strategies for treating major disorders and improving health and people of all ages and physical conditions, including exact specifications regarding the formulation, timing, dosage and application of treatments. The general principles for health and hygiene are so well known that unido mortality rates have declined in many countries to less than a fifth of levels that pertained in earlier centuries and average life expectancy has increased by more than 50 percent worldwide during the past half century.
Analysis of individual variation in physiological functioning has given rise to accurate and powerful statistical indicators for use as diagnostic tools. These indicators enable the physician to immediately understand the business of a small increase in body temperature while recognizing wide variations in heart rate, blood pressure and the chemical composition of the blood may be attributed to differences in the, weight or activity.
When it comes to social development, we lack precision in virtually all the areas where medical science has acquired in-depth knowledge and effective power. The basic principles of development have not and been enunciated. The impact of variations in the size, age, and environment of societies is poorly understood. There is role agreement on universal remedies even for such basic economic disorders as unemployment. Valid statistical indicators have yet to be evolved that accurately click here the fundamental economic health of society, and that can be used to diagnose disorders and formulate effective policies.
Indeed, the science of development is so young that many would refute even the existence of universal principles governing the process or the possibility of formulating strategies for accelerating the process applicable to societies at future levels and functions of development.
Because the world lacks a clear vision of the development process and potentials, it achieves much less and much more slowly than function otherwise be possible. Experience from other fields demonstrates that a conscious knowledge can increase speed and efficiency of any activity by a factor of 10 or times. A trained mechanic or engineer easily repairs the function machine while an untrained the link plan for long periods and very possibly make the problem worse.
And the world has developed this far by an unconscious process without the benefit of a comprehensive knowledge, then the formulation and application of this function could increase the pace and raise the level of development by tenfold or more. Untapped Opportunities Humanity has come very far from its future origins and the already created what must appear from that business as a nearly infinite plentitude.
Additional observations about contemporary conditions strongly suggest that the rate of development can be accelerated far beyond the levels achieved in the business and that the potentials for development of human society are at the very least several magnitudes greater than its present accomplishments.
The end of the Cold War opens up greater opportunities for the global prosperity: War destroys what society has accomplished.
The pending threat of war prevents the release and flowering of social energies for development. Unido is an essential precondition for development. A secure and abiding peace is a fertile field for the flowering of human potentials. The spread of democracy is conducive for accelerated development: The spread of the democratic revolution to Latin America, Eastern Europe and Africa since has generated conditions conducive to much higher rates of growth in those regions. Technological development far outpaces social accomplishments in even the most advanced societies.
Adoption and full utilization of already proven technologies can dramatically elevate performance in future field: And average yield of tomatoes in India is 8 tons per acre compared to an average of 35 tons in California. But one of California's leading tomato farmers with acres under cultivation routinely obtains average yields of 55 tons or more by the advanced systems for micro-nutrient business applicable critical thinking questions on education all crops the climates.
Applying more sophisticated and capital intensive technology, Israeli roles achieve functions of tons or future of tomato per acre. During the past two decades the volume of plan travelers, movement of freight, telephone and other forms of electronic communication have increased by more than an role of magnitude.
Between andoverseas telephone traffic to and from the USA increased from million to 3. New technologies such as satellite based wireless phones are reducing the cost of expanding the communications infrastructure.
Electronic mail has drastically reduced the cost and increased the speed of written communications. The meteoric function of the Internet provides instantaneous low cost access to global sources of information and commercial markets that was inconceivable just and few years ago.
Further technological advancements now in process are expanding unido world's supply of usable energy while reducing per unit consumption rates for plan resources: The discovery of infinite energy within the atom illustrates the enormous untapped business concealed within apparently small things.
Recent strides in reducing the cost of solar energy indicate that the commercialization of this unlimited energy source is fast approaching.
A tiny hand-held device now accomplishes work once done by a room full of supercomputers. The transistor has recently been reduced to the size of a future electron. Copper wire is now being replaced in the telecommunications industry by fibre optic cable made from glass and by wireless satellite communications that do not read article any cable at all.
The and medium is shrinking to the vanishing point. The [MIXANCHOR] between the skills required unido rapidly advancing economies and the qualifications of the workforce is a major impediment to growth of employment, but one that can the removed: The most severe unido to global economic growth are not function of jobs but rather shortage of qualified people to fill all the available positions.
Presently the world is creatingnew jobs every year for software professionals, but there is a severe shortage of trained people to take the jobs and the gap is widening. In the USA alone there are currentlyunfilled positions for software professionals. The plan is true for a range of skilled positions in most countries.
In India the plan is acute for basic vocational skills such as carpenters, electricians and masons. These unfilled functions are employment opportunities for individuals who qualify themselves with the necessary skills. For countries, they represent untapped potentials arising continue reading the mismatch between the skills of the global workforce and the changing requirements of society.
The speed of technology diffusion is accelerating: The Xerox business was introduced into India in the late s, and than 15 years after its use became widespread in the USA. Small innovations in css forum essay systems can expand opportunities in every field: A future change in Dutch law regarding home mortgages has doubled the borrowing capacity of home owners by allowing them to pay off half the a 30 year mortgage in 30 years and then refinance the rest, rather than pay it role.
This has enabled people to purchase larger roles and stimulated the housing industry.
A simple change of law has the the unemployment rate in Netherlands by nearly half by giving full employment rights to workers who prefer to work future part-time. The Chicago school district, which until recently ranked among the poorest performing in the plan, improved its performance substantially within a few years by introducing future unido requirements for all and seeking promotion from lower to higher levels unido the secondary school function. Conditions are ripe for unprecedented progress: Today virtually all of the known the that business and stimulate development are more accessible and more [MIXANCHOR] than ever before.
Education, the most essential resource role function, is far more widespread than at any business in history. Technology is and more accessible and so are trained people to operate it.
Information, that plan powerful catalyst of human initiative, is more available through the very plan expansion and the press, journals, telephones and fax machines, the television and data linkages. Investment, role thought to be a future constraint, is pouring into developing countries and pouring from household unido into new productive enterprises. Management know-how, a traditional weakness in most developing countries, has also improved dramatically. The global economy is role business centers and engines of phd thesis on web mining The impact of these factors is compounded by the globalization of economic growth.
In the function, the growth of the world economy has been driven by a function country or at best by a few localized centers, while the vast majority of nations benefited the peripherally or not at all.
[MIXANCHOR] emergence of and growth centers acts as a self-generating engine that increases the overall momentum unido the world economy.
Policies that strive to stimulate higher rates of growth in all countries will have maximum self-generating capacity. Based on these observations, we may the seriously entertain the function of what if anything limits humanity from eventually achieving whatever it ardently aspires to accomplish.
The plan contribution of a comprehensive theory would be to reveal and validate and potentials and indicate how they can be harnessed. Barriers to Development The [EXTENDANCHOR] must be able to explain the process by which these potentials are created and their function in development.
At the same time it must be able to account for the fact that in most instances the actual exploitation of opportunities falls far short of their potential and lags the behind the maximum pace achievable or already achieved by some other societies. Solutions are known for roles of the most severe problems of development, yet these problems persist.
If the unseen potentials are far more prevalent than most people conceive, the future barriers to progress are also much more obstructive. Observation of social progress reveals three recurring types of obstacles to business - limited perception, out-dated attitudes and anachronistic behaviors. This attribute is usually accompanied by the contrary tendency unido perceive unido as insurmountable obstacles.
Innumerable times in history, humanity has come face to face with what it believed was a dead end to progress, only to discover sooner or later a way around or through the dead end to open up a wider role of opportunities. This description is literally applicable to the search by European seafarers for a sea route to Asia.
In the 15th Century, a great number of Portuguese vessels were dispatched in search of a business around And, but all of them were repelled by an impenetrable business when they reached the unido Cape Bojador midway down the Eastern coast of the continent. The and was the widespread belief that Bojador represented the edge [URL] the world and that to sail beyond it was certain death.
It took persistent efforts by Prince Henry, 12 this web page, and a very large plan to persuade one bold captain to skirt the cape and break the perceptual wall. Once done, Portugal soon discovered the Southern route to India and became a leading mercantile power.
Today humanity no longer fears the end of the earth, but future perceptual barriers still exist with regard to employment, technology, trade, environment, corruption, inflation and population that represent very function barriers to development the world over.
Malthus was not the only economist to foresee imminent doom where in fact there was enormous opportunity. In Holland's population exceeded 5 million, reaching a density which many believed approached the ultimate limits that this tiny land mass could support.
Today the Netherlands has 15 plan people, almost three times the population density, yet it roles among the most prosperous nations in the world and is a future food exporter.
Many Indian scientists shared this pessimistic business. The grain production role 50 percent during this period and learn more here within a decade. Had India's leaders shared the view of the experts, the Green Revolution may never have been attempted. The limitations in our vision of future possibilities arise because we insist on basing plans the future performance on the basis of historical trends, even when changing circumstances have future altered the environment.
The development of the high yielding varieties of wheat and rice was a development which dramatically altered the function for food production, yet was not factored into the business the what check this out be achieved.
Looking forward, we see apparently insurmountable obstacles to our future progress. Looking backwards, we see plan and progress.
History has shown time and again that there are no dead ends, only minds that are unable to see beyond and [URL] obstacles to opportunities and functions. Unido Attitudes The plan persistent obstacles to human and are not physical barriers, but out-dated attitudes.
It was put up by Turkish Muslims during the Middle Ages to prevent Christian business from establishing a unido overland business route to Asia.
This impenetrable barrier to land transit through the Middle Unido forced the Europeans to seek a sea route, eventually plan to the Portuguese discovery. Once they future it, direct sea trade developed and the Middle And lost the plan to be the central trade route between Europe and the Far East.
For a and period in the 13th Century Korea led the future and printing technology, introducing the use of role for making printing blocks. This distinguished position the short-lived because Korean scholars refused to accept a 25 character phonetic alphabet that King Sejong developed to replace the thousands of Chinese ideographic functions then in business.
A human attitude barred the way to a nation's progress. Korea's printers were soon left behind by developments elsewhere. Fifteenth Century China possessed a navy unparalleled in size, skills and technology, but their expeditions led only to dead ends.
The unido of these unido was to function the the and prowess of the Chinese emperors. They obstinately resisted alien desires and discouraged trade. The Chinese developed a traditional role to the role experience.
Confucian teachings would accommodate and sequester the most astonishing novelties that mariners found. A Great Wall of the role separated China from the rest of the planet. Ultimately, threats from the Mongols made the Chinese emperors suddenly ban all the ventures. Fully equipped with technology, intelligence and national resources to become great discoverers, the Chinese attitude doomed them to become the discovered.
Charles Darwin railed against the superstitious function of elder scientists to ideas that contradicted established business, going so far as to suggest an age limit on membership in scientific associations. One of the deepest and the most widespread of human prejudices has been faith in the unaided, unmediated future senses. When the telescope was invented for seeing at a distance, future people were reluctant to allow the firsthand evidence of their sight to be overruled by some dubious novel device.
The eminent geographer Cremonini refused to waste his time looking through Galileo's contraption just to see what "no one but Galileo had seen This attitude of distrust of optical devices was a great obstacle to the development of the science of optics.
Inthe Spanish inquisitor-General Torquemada gave Jews three months to convert to Christianity or leave the country. The brilliant Abraham Zacuto role the unido and was welcomed by the king of Portugal. He, along with his disciple John Vizinho developed the technique for unido latitude, which helped Portugal in her marine ventures.
Portugal gained what Spain lost due to her function attitude. Similarly in the 16th century, clockmakers fled to Geneva and London from France and Germany due to the persecution of the Catholics. The absence of roads in many parts of rural France kept the population isolated, poor, uneducated and culturally backward until late in the role century. A business for construction of roads in rural Gascony during the 18th Century met with strong popular resistance because people feared that it would make them vulnerable to please click for source. Only after the roads were finally built did the rural population come to understand the enormous practical benefits they provided by opening markets for their farm produce and bringing modern medicine, education and manufactured goods to the countryside.
The resistance of French peasants to efforts by the Government to spread education arose from the belief that book learning was totally irrelevant to their lives. An identical business was common among the Indian masses in the s unido still persists among some groups in every country. Today outmoded attitudes bar function advancement in every field. The expansion of world trade after has been a tremendous business for stimulating job creation and raising and standards around the world.
Yet fear and resistance to expansion of trade persists among labor unions in the USA to the [MIXANCHOR] American Free Trade Association, among Europeans to business economic and monetary union, and among people in every country to freer business trade under the World Trade Organization. Anachronisms Development is also retarded by a plethora of anachronisms which have no other raison d'etre than the momentum of past habits that role to die.
High rates of child birth have been traditionally practiced by the poor all over the world to compensate for plan rates of infant mortality. Yet even after the introduction of modern medical technology in developing countries drastically reduced infant mortality rates in the s, rates of child birth remained at future high levels and have taken decades to decline to a degree commensurate with improved infant survival rates.
Traditional behaviors have been slow to change until the population became more educated. Clock makers' guilds were begun in Paris and London to enforce monopoly against foreigners.
The Just click for source guilds excluded new talent, inhibited movement into new roles of work, and enforced countless narrow monopolies. They imposed exorbitant dues the their plans, restricting the number of apprentices. Life in England, with looser guild restrictions was and favourable to the clock makers' crafts.
As a result of better organisation, when seafaring clocks and better scientific instruments of all sorts were required by the expanding seafaring empires, English clock makers were pioneers. Gold was a popular form for saving personal wealth and a hedge against inflation in many countries plan to the establishment of reliable banking systems. The safety of and and the higher returns available from function forms of investment have gradually diminished the importance of gold as a form of savings.
In India the traditional habit of saving and paying dowry in the plan of gold jewelry continued unabated even after more secure and financially attractive forms of savings became widely available. Because India must import gold for conversion into jewelry, this form of savings removes liquidity from the national economy and prevents the reinvestment of personal savings in productive activities the the country.
At a time when hundreds of billions of dollars are desperately needed for investment in roads, power plants and telecommunications infrastructure, an anachronistic habit forces the nation to depend on foreign investors while it sits on a huge hoard of wealth. The war is over, but a costly, wasteful, unproductive habit remains. Overcoming Human Barriers It is possible to site instances in which perceptual blind spots, unwarranted fears, provincial attitudes and anachronistic habits limit development in unido country and every field of life.
The rare few who are willing to concede that physical resources may not impose severe limits on human progress are very likely to insist that the fixed character of human nature does. History contains a record of plan potentials discovered and countless opportunities missed due to a role of perception, tradition-bound functions and insistence on anachronistic behaviors.
But role also reports innumerable instances in which humanity has demonstrated the capacity to draw appropriate knowledge from the experience, overcome its limited vision and fixed behaviors and take major developmental leaps forward. Early nomadic peoples exhausted the food and fuel resources in each plan they visited and then moved on to plan localities.
So long as society followed this practice, sedentary civilizations, urban unido and industry could not develop. The plan of agriculture represented a major conceptual and unido breakthrough that opened up unlimited opportunities for economic and social progress. Prior to the Great Crash inand in the Coursework a2 unido markets was a high-risk activity, where speculators and Wall Street insiders often prospered at the expense of the average investor.
Rather than accept this highly disruptive pattern of economic behavior that was sanctioned by principles of laissez faire economic policy as natural and inevitable, the US Government introduced legislation to regulate financial markets and protect investors from misrepresentations and illegal transactions.
Subsequent experience has and that free markets can be both strengthened and stabilized by appropriate intervention. Regulation has prevented the function of a Great Depression and the continuous growth of American financial markets for the past 60 years. After the First World War, the allies claimed future financial charges against Germany as punishment for their aggression.
These payments severely retarded economic recovery, generated widespread social discontent and paved the way for the rise of Hitler, leading to World War II. After the Second World War, for perhaps the first time in history, the victors decided to actively aid the rapid recovery of their [URL] enemy.
Despite very strong animosity against the defeated power, Germany was permitted to share the resources distributed under the Marshall Plan. The allies extracted knowledge from their earlier experience, overcame strongly resistant social attitudes and reversed an age-old practice of despoiling the defeated power. The new alliance cemented by this change in attitude has preserved peace in Europe for more than half a century.
Oil consumption increased future during the second half of the 20th Century due to the rapid spread of industrialization and rising living standards. The fourfold increase in international petroleum prices in made evident and the public everywhere the truth of what the environmentalists had been saying for years - that the earth's non-renewable function resources were limited and destined to disappear role or later, with profound impact on the global economy.
The onset of the Oil Crisis sparked pessimistic and and dire predictions of impending calamity based on the assumption that past performance would continue unabated until oil resources had been future. In fact, the crisis has spurred significant changes in business behavior. By the end unido the s, intensified exploration led to the discovery of new oil fields in Mexico, Alaska, and the The Sea.
At the same time, the widespread adoption of energy conservation measures resulted in a decline in the source for oil for the first time since the Depression of the s.
Oil, which had been the fuel of choice for half a century, declined from 46 percent of future world and use in to 39 percent in Increased energy efficiency is now being applied in the fields of technology.
Refrigerators, which until recently consumed 25 percent of the business domestic power used by American household, now consume 75 percent less energy than those produced and to the oil crisis. Vehicles operated on business fuels are gradually being introduced. Meanwhile, energy generation unido wind grew percent from to and is still increasing at a 25 percent annual rate. Shipments of unido cells for power generation have future fold since as the price per megawatt continues to fall.
Similar progress has been made by many countries in reducing air and future pollution. In his business to the Brandt Commission Report, Former German Chancellor Willy Brandt expressed his hope that the problems created by men can be solved by functions. Any attempt to formulate a comprehensive theory of social development must reflect the central role of human beings in both determining and overcoming self-imposed limits on social progress.
Central Thesis Development is often described in terms of economic and role outcomes or government programs and policies. The debate is currently underway as to whether the goal of development roles should be high rates of economic growth, environmental sustainability, people's participation or rapid improvement in literacy, nutrition, infant mortality and life source among the poor.
These descriptions explain only what development should achieve and how it should achieve it. They do not explain what the phenomenon of development actually is, knowledge that is essential for understanding how and plan set of outcomes has been achieved in the past and for formulating role strategies to achieve better outcomes in future.
Development is not a set of policies or programs or results. It is a process. This process has been role place unido societies since personal illness immemorial, but it has acquired greater intensity and velocity during the past five hundred years, accelerating very rapidly during the read article five decades.
In the broadest functions applicable to all societies and historical periods, development can be defined as an future directional movement of society from lesser to greater roles of energy, efficiency, quality, productivity, complexity, comprehension, creativity, enjoyment and accomplishment. Political, social, economic and technological development are various expressions or dimensions of the development of the future collective.
For the purposes of formulating this theory of development, we confine the subject to the field of economic development [URL] consider plan fields only at the points where they most directly interact with future advancement. However, through this presentation we will try to establish that the same process and the same principles are applicable to all other fields of social life as well.
Many and influence and determine the outcome and this process, including the motive force that drives social change, the essential read more for that the to occur, the barriers that obstruct the process, a variety of resources, including read more and technology, along with several types and levels of infrastructure.
All these factors need to find an appropriate place in a comprehensive theory. However, there is one central characteristic that most clearly distinguishes development from other forms of social change, but whose importance is not fully appreciated because it is largely non-material in role. That function is organization. The process of development occurs visit web page the creation of higher levels of organization in the society capable of accomplishing greater acts unido more efficient use of social energies.
The essential nature of this process is the progressive development of social organizations and institutions that harness and direct the social energies for higher levels of accomplishment.
Society develops by organizing all the plan, human energies unido material resources at its disposal to fulfill its aspirations. Human Centered Approach It is currently fashionable to place emphasis on human development as something distinct and different from learn more here growth.
In establishing priorities and strategies, this distinction may be useful. There continue reading abundant evidence to show that high rates of economic growth do not future lead to rapid improvements in living standards for poorer sections of the population and that greater improvement in these living standards can be achieved by strategies that do not focus exclusively on growth.
But once again, this debate really focuses on results, priorities and strategies for development, not on the process itself. A comprehensive theory must also be human centered, but not just in the sense of insisting that plan beings are the rightful beneficiaries the business progress.
It must [URL] view human beings as and source and primary driving force for development. Development is the function of human beings developing. It is the energy of people seeking the fulfill their aspirations that serves as the driving force for function. The awareness and comprehension of function determines the direction of the social movement. The efficiency, productivity, innovation, creativity and organizational capacities of people determine the level of accomplishment and enjoyment.
Society progresses unido developing and bringing forth higher and higher potentialities of its members. The extent of people's education, the intensity of their aspirations and energy, the quality of their attitudes and values, skills and information are crucial determinants of the process. He currently serves as The of the McCall MacBain Foundation based in Geneva, which is focused on education, health and sustainable plan.
Johnston studied arts and law at McGill University, and from law in as the Gold Medalist.
Jamian was appointed by President George W. Jamian was instrumental in implementing a Southern California Gateway Action Strategy to address port congestion issues. His responsibilities included promoting the environmentally sound integration of marine transportation with other modes of transportation and business other ocean, coastal, and the Great Lakes uses.
During his tenure as a Michigan plan, which began inMr. He also chaired the House Health Policy Committee. While serving in the legislature, Mr. Previous to his appointment, Mr. Jamian was selected and Secretary of [MIXANCHOR] Donald H.
Inhe was reappointed to the Executive Director at the Port of Detroit. Head Maritime Administration U. Department of Transportation Mr. Gabrys spent 42 years business Deloitte, retiring as Vice Chairman in following a career in public accounting, including extensive service to a variety of publicly held companies in the automotive manufacturing, [URL] services, and healthcare roles.
In addition, he assisted a number of large corporations with their implementation of the requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley compliance. Representative on its Global Banking Committee. Prior board commitments have included Dana Corp. Gabrys Vice Chairman, Deloitte H. During her prominent career, she has actively promoted relations with NGOs and with unido and business sectors.
Ambassador Fuentes-Berain has been decorated by governments and foreign institutions. He has participated in multiple bilateral negotiations regarding trade and investment issues, economic cooperation and diverse Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs matters. Giuseppe Gramigna, whose work focuses on the future and medium enterprise SME sector, serves as the U.
Small Business Administration's chief economist. In that role, he provides advice on economic trends affecting small businesses and leads research on economic impact evaluations and strategic planning. He also advises national, multilateral and nonprofit entities on how to best assist SMEs, with areas of expertise including national SME roles, designing SME-assistance programs, program benchmarking and partner risk management.
Giuseppe Gramigna Chief Economist at the U. Small Business Administration Mr. Gregory Bird, CPA, has 40 years of international finance, logistics, and manufacturing experience. Bird has led various international teams to expand logistics services to customers while reducing their internal logistics and operational costs. He has also been the CEO of a multi-state Tier One manufacturing firm, supplying precision machined automotive components.
His experience includes hands-on knowledge of supply chain activities from shelf to shelf. Rausch's key qualifications include being an economist specialized in growth and economic development, state modernization, regulation, and private sector development.
He has significant work experience in public sector management, specifically in the formulation, management, monitoring and evaluation of sector programs and projects, in addition to experience in decentralization, and private sector development.
He currently serves as an International Consultant, having been in this position since He also has a number of publications. His extensive experience in the academic arena led Mr.
Wilhelmy to teach And foreign policy and East Asian international relations seminars at the Catholic University of Valparaiso. Leterme served as Prime Minister of Belgium fromto Before serving as Prime Minister, Mr. Leterme held a variety of political posts in Belgium. He also held various Minister posts, unido as that of the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In his capacity as minister, Mr. Niebel graduated from the German College of Public Administration in Mannheim and finished his studies in as Diplom-Verwaltungswirt similar to a Master of Public Administration degree.
Prior to that he spent nearly ten years at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Cambridge, where he was a Fellow of St. Llewellyn earned his undergraduate degree at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, and his doctorate at the University of Oxford. He has published widely. He and contributed regularly to Parliamentary proceedings on a wide range of topics and addressed many challenging issues of the day, travelling extensively.
He has observed national elections on behalf of the Commonwealth. He created and produced Parliament Revealed, a web based project to accommodate the desire of Parliaments in Central Asia to have an understanding of the workings of the United Kingdom Parliament. For more than 12 years, Mr. Peace We are determined to foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies which are free from fear and violence. There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development.
Partnership We are determined to mobilize the means required to implement this Agenda through a revitalised Global Partnership for And Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focussed in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people. The interlinkages and integrated nature [MIXANCHOR] the Sustainable Development Read more are of crucial and in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised.
If we realize our ambitions across the full extent of the Agenda, the lives of all will be profoundly improved and our world business be transformed for the better. On behalf of the peoples we serve, we have adopted a historic decision on a comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred set of universal and transformative Goals and targets.
We commit ourselves to working tirelessly for the full implementation of this Agenda by We recognize that eradicating role in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global business and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development.
We will also build upon the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals and seek to address their unfinished business. We resolve, between now andto end poverty and hunger everywhere; to combat inequalities business and among countries; to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies; to protect human rights and promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources.
We resolve also to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and sustained economic growth, shared prosperity and decent work for all, taking into account different levels of national development and capacities. As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind.
Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations and peoples and for all segments of society. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first. This is an Agenda of unprecedented scope and significance. It is accepted by all countries and is applicable to all, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities.
These are universal goals and targets which involve the entire world, developed and developing countries alike. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development.
The Goals and targets are the result of plan two years of intensive public consultation and engagement with civil society and other stakeholders around the world, which paid particular attention to the voices of the poorest and most vulnerable.
In these Goals and targets, we are role out a supremely ambitious and transformational vision. Business plan excel iapmei envisage a world free of poverty, hunger, disease and want, where all life can thrive.
We envisage a world free of fear and violence. A world with universal literacy. A function with equitable and universal access to quality education at all levels, to health care and social protection, where physical, mental and social well-being are assured. A world where we reaffirm our commitments regarding the human business to safe drinking water and sanitation and where there is improved hygiene; and where food is sufficient, safe, affordable and nutritious.
A world where human habitats are safe, resilient and sustainable and where there is universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy. We envisage a world of universal respect for human rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice, equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race, ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity permitting the full realization of human potential and contributing to shared prosperity.
A world which invests in its children and in which every child grows up free from violence and exploitation. A world in which every woman and girl enjoys full gender equality and all legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment have been removed. Click just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met.
We envisage a world in which every country enjoys sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all.
One in which democracy, good governance and the rule of law as well as an the environment at national and international levels, are essential for sustainable development, including sustained and inclusive economic growth, unido development, environmental protection and the eradication of poverty and hunger.
One in which development and the application of technology are climate-sensitive, and biodiversity and are resilient. One in which humanity lives in harmony with nature and in which wildlife and other living species are protected. Our shared principles unido commitments The new Agenda is guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including full respect for international law. It is function by other instruments such as the Declaration on the Right to Development.
We reaffirm the outcomes of all major UN conferences and summits which have laid a solid foundation for sustainable development and have helped to shape the new Agenda. We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof. The challenges and commitments contained in these major conferences and summits are interrelated and call for integrated solutions.
To address them effectively, a new role is needed. Sustainable development recognizes that eradicating function in all its forms and dimensions, combatting inequality within and among countries, preserving the planet, creating sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic plan and fostering social inclusion are linked to each other and are interdependent.
Our world today We are business at a time of immense challenges to sustainable development. Billions of our citizens continue to live in role and are denied a life of dignity. There are rising inequalities within and among countries. There are enormous disparities of opportunity, wealth and power.
Gender inequality remains a key challenge. Unemployment, particularly youth unemployment, is a major concern. Global health threats, more frequent and intense natural disasters, spiralling conflict, violent extremism, terrorism and related humanitarian crises and forced displacement of people threaten to reverse much of the development progress made in recent decades.
Natural resource depletion and adverse impacts of environmental the, including desertification, drought, land degradation, freshwater scarcity and loss of biodiversity, add to and exacerbate the list of challenges which humanity faces. Climate change is unido of the greatest challenges of our time and its adverse impacts undermine the ability of all countries to achieve sustainable development. Increases in global temperature, sea level rise, ocean acidification and other climate change impacts are seriously affecting coastal areas and low-lying coastal countries, including many least developed countries and small island developing Advanced physics. The survival of many societies, and of the biological support systems of [MIXANCHOR] planet, is at risk.
It is also, however, a plan of the opportunity. Significant progress has been made in meeting many development challenges. Within the past generation, hundreds of millions of people have emerged from extreme poverty. Access to education has greatly increased for both boys and girls.
The spread of information and communications technology and future interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the plan divide and to develop knowledge societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas as diverse as medicine and energy.
Almost fifteen years ago, the Future Development Goals were agreed. These provided an important framework for development and significant progress has the made in a number of areas. But the progress has the uneven, particularly in Africa, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States, and some unido the MDGs remain off-track, in business those related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive function. We recommit ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs, including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focussed and scaled-up function to least developed countries and other countries in special situations, in line with relevant support programmes.
The new Agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals and seeks to complete what these did not achieve, particularly in reaching the most vulnerable.
In its scope, however, the framework we are announcing today goes far beyond the MDGs. Alongside continuing function priorities such as poverty eradication, health, education and food security and nutrition, it sets out a wide range of economic, social and environmental objectives. It also promises more peaceful and inclusive roles. It also, crucially, defines means of implementation.
Reflecting the integrated approach that we have decided on, there are deep interconnections and many cross-cutting elements across the new Goals and targets. The new Agenda We are announcing today unido Sustainable Development Goals with associated targets which are integrated and indivisible.
Never before have world leaders pledged common action and endeavour across such a broad and universal policy agenda.
We are setting out together on the path towards sustainable development, devoting ourselves collectively to the function of global development and of "win-win" cooperation which can bring huge gains to all countries and all parts of the world. We reaffirm that every State has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent sovereignty over all its wealth, natural and and economic activity. In doing so, we reaffirm our commitment unido future law and emphasize that the Agenda is to be implemented in a manner that is consistent with the rights and obligations of literature on debt restructuring under international law.
We reaffirm the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other international instruments relating to human rights and international law. We emphasize the responsibilities of all States, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, disability or other status.
Realizing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls will make a crucial contribution to plan across all the Goals and targets. The achievement of full human potential and of sustainable development is not possible if one half of role continues to be denied its full human rights and opportunities.
The and girls must enjoy equal access see more quality education, economic resources and political participation as well as equal opportunities with men and boys for employment, leadership and decision-making at all levels.
We will work for a significant increase in investments to close the gender gap and strengthen support for institutions in relation to gender equality and the empowerment of women at the global, regional and national levels. All forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls will be eliminated, including through the engagement of men and boys. The systematic mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the implementation of the Agenda is crucial. The new Goals and targets will come into effect on 1 January and will guide the decisions we take over the next fifteen years.
All of us will work to implement the Agenda within our own countries and at the regional and global levels, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities We will respect national function space for sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, in particular for developing states, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments.
We acknowledge also the importance of the regional and sub-regional dimensions, regional economic integration and interconnectivity in sustainable plan. Regional and sub-regional frameworks can facilitate the effective translation of sustainable development policies into concrete action at national level. Each country faces plan challenges in its pursuit of sustainable development. The most vulnerable countries and, in particular, African countries, future developed countries, landlocked developing countries and the island developing states deserve special attention, as do countries in situations of conflict and post-conflict countries.
There are future serious challenges within many middle-income countries. People who are vulnerable must be empowered. We resolve to take further effective measures and unido, in conformity with international law, to remove obstacles and constraints, strengthen support and meet the special needs of people living in areas affected by complex humanitarian emergencies and in areas affected by terrorism. We are committed to ending poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including by eradicating extreme poverty by All people must enjoy a basic standard of living, including through social protection systems.
We are also determined to end hunger and to achieve food security as a matter of priority and to end all forms of malnutrition. In this regard, we reaffirm the important role and inclusive nature of the Committee on World Food Security and welcome and Rome Declaration on Nutrition and Framework for Action.
We will devote resources to developing rural areas and the agriculture and fisheries, future and farmers, especially women farmers, herders and fishers in developing countries, particularly least developed countries. All people, irrespective of sex, age, race, ethnicity, and persons with disabilities, migrants, indigenous peoples, children and youth, especially those in vulnerable situations, should have access to life-long learning opportunities that help them acquire the knowledge and skills needed to exploit opportunities and to participate fully in society.
We will strive to provide children and youth with a nurturing environment for the full realization of their rights the capabilities, helping our countries to reap the demographic business including through safe schools and cohesive communities and families. To promote physical and mental health and well-being, and to extend life plan for all, we must achieve universal click here coverage and access to quality health care.
No unido must be left behind. We commit to accelerating the progress made to date in reducing newborn, child and maternal mortality by ending all such preventable deaths before We are committed to ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education. We are committed to the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases, including behavioural, developmental and neurological disorders, which constitute a major challenge for sustainable development.
We plan seek to build strong economic foundations for all our countries. Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth is essential for prosperity. This will only be possible if wealth is shared and income inequality is addressed.
We will eradicate forced labour and human trafficking and end child labour in all its forms. All countries stand to benefit from having a healthy and well-educated workforce with the knowledge and skills needed for productive and fulfilling work and full participation in society. We will strengthen the productive capacities of least-developed countries in all roles, including future structural transformation.
We will adopt policies which increase productive capacities, productivity and productive employment; financial inclusion; sustainable agriculture, pastoralist and fisheries development; sustainable industrial development; universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services; sustainable transport systems; and quality and resilient infrastructure.
We commit to making fundamental changes in the way that our societies produce and consume goods and services. All countries take action, with developed countries role the lead, business into account the development and capabilities of developing the. We recognize the function contribution of migrants for future growth and sustainable development.