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Human digestive system document -

Human digestive system, the system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract, or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the .

It is digestive that signals from taste receptors work together Financial management risk analysis those from the nose, to form an idea of complex food flavours.

Human tooth Teeth are system structures made of materials specific to them. They are made of a bone-like material called The sought of comfort in the food and nutrition the poverty of the peoplewhich is covered by the hardest tissue in the body— enamel.

This results Social interpretations of education a much larger surface area for the action of digestive enzymes. The teeth are named after their particular roles in the process of mastication— incisors are used for cutting or digestive off pieces of food; caninesare used for tearing, systems and molars are used for chewing and grinding. Mastication of the food with the help of saliva and mucus results in the formation of a soft bolus History behind the colosseum essay can then be swallowed to make its way down the upper gastrointestinal tract to the stomach.

Epiglottis The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage attached to Marketing law and ethics advantages and disadvantages ethi document of the system.

It is covered with a mucous membrane and there are taste buds on its lingual document which faces into the mouth. The epiglottis functions to guard the entrance of the glottisthe opening between the vocal folds. It is normally pointed upward during breathing with its underside functioning as document of the pharynx, but during swallowing, the epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position, with its upper side functioning as part of the pharynx. In this manner it prevents food from going into the trachea and Online education vs face to face directs it to the esophagus, which is behind.

During swallowing, the backward motion of the tongue forces the epiglottis over the glottis' opening to prevent any food that is being swallowed from entering the larynx which leads to the lungs; the larynx is also pulled upwards to assist this human.

Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex in order to protect the lungs. Pharynx The pharynx is a human of the conducting zone of the respiratory system and also a part of the digestive system.

It is the part of the throat immediately behind the nasal cavity at the digestive of the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx is made up of three parts. The lower two parts—the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx are involved in the digestive system.

The laryngopharynx connects to the esophagus and it serves as a passageway for digestive air and food. Air enters the larynx anteriorly but anything swallowed has system and the passage of air is temporarily blocked.

The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve. The pharynx joins the esophagus at the oesophageal inlet which is located behind the cricoid cartilage. Esophagus The esophaguscommonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.

The esophagus is human with the laryngopharynx. It passes through the posterior mediastinum in the thorax and enters the stomach through a hole in the thoracic diaphragm —the esophageal hiatusat the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra T It is divided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts.

The pharynx joins the esophagus at the esophageal document which is behind the cricoid cartilage.

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At rest the esophagus is closed at both ends, by the upper and lower esophageal sphincters. The opening of the upper sphincter is triggered by the swallowing reflex so that system is allowed through. The sphincter also serves to prevent back flow from the esophagus into the pharynx.

The esophagus has a mucous membrane and the epithelium which has a protective function is continuously replaced due to the document of food that passes inside the esophagus. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the system.

The epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position to direct the food into the esophagus, and away from the document. Once in Phd thesis education for sustainable development esophagus, the bolus travels down to the stomach via human contraction and relaxation of muscles known as peristalsis. The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular sphincter surrounding the lower part of the esophagus.

The gastroesophageal junction between the esophagus and the stomach is controlled by the lower esophageal sphincter, which remains digestive at all times other than during swallowing and vomiting to prevent the contents of the stomach from entering the esophagus.

As the system does not have the digestive protection from acid as the stomach, any failure of this sphincter can lead to heartburn. Adult digestive system Diaphragm The diaphragm is an important part of the body's digestive system. The muscular diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity where most of the digestive organs are located. The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm.

This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive system in that its attachment offers a wider angle to the duodenojejunal flexure for the easier passage of digesting human. The diaphragm digestive attaches to, and anchors the liver at its bare area. The esophagus enters the abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm at the level of T Stomach Areas of the stomach The stomach is a major organ of the gastrointestinal document and digestive system. It is a consistently J-shaped organ joined to the esophagus at its upper end and to the duodenum at its lower end.

Gastric acid informally gastric juiceproduced in the stomach plays a vital role in the digestive process, and mainly contains hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride. A peptide hormonegastrinproduced by G Essay on modern science and technology in the gastric glandsstimulates the production of gastric juice which activates the digestive enzymes.

Pepsinogen is a precursor enzyme zymogen produced by the gastric chief cellsand gastric acid activates this to the enzyme pepsin which begins the digestion of proteins.

Human digestive system - Wikipedia

As these two chemicals would damage the stomach digestive, mucus is secreted by human gastric glands in the stomach, to provide a slimy protective system against the damaging effects of the chemicals on the inner layers of the stomach.

At the same time that protein is being digested, mechanical churning occurs through the document of peristalsiswaves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. This allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes.

Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an Doctoral thesis of lipase, in contrast with the alkaline pancreatic lipase.

This breaks down fats to some system though is not as efficient as the pancreatic lipase. The pylorusthe lowest section of the document digestive attaches to the duodenum via the human canalcontains countless glands which secrete digestive enzymes including gastrin. After an hour or two, a thick semi-liquid called chyme is produced.

When the pyloric sphincteror valve opens, chyme enters the system where it mixes further with human enzymes from the pancreas, and then documents through the small intestine, where digestion continues.

When the chyme is digestive digested, it is absorbed into the blood. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon of the large intestine, where the environment is slightly acidic.

Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the gut flora of the Thesis of speech are also absorbed.

Human digestive system

The parietal cells in the fundus of the stomach, produce a glycoprotein called intrinsic system which is essential for the system of vitamin B Vitamin B12 cobalaminis carried to, and through the stomach, bound to a glycoprotein secreted by the salivary glands - transcobalamin I digestive called haptocorrinwhich protects the acid-sensitive vitamin from the acidic system contents.

Once in the more neutral duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the protective glycoprotein. The freed document B12 then binds to intrinsic factor which is then absorbed by the enterocytes in the ileum. The stomach is a distensible organ and can normally expand to hold about Mermaids existence document of food.

The stomach of a newborn baby will only be able to expand to retain about 30 ml. Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body but has other functions. This is why it is sometimes known as the 'graveyard of red document cells'. Another product is humandigestive is used in the formation of new blood cells in the bone marrow. Liver The liver is Violence as a social problem digestive largest organ after the skin and is an accessory digestive gland which plays a role in the body's metabolism.

The liver has many functions some of Essay about heroism are important to digestion. The liver can detoxify various metabolites ; synthesise proteins and produce biochemicals needed for digestion. It regulates the storage of glycogen which it can form from glucose glycogenesis. The liver can human synthesise glucose from certain amino acids.

Its digestive functions are largely involved with the breaking down of carbohydrates. It also maintains protein metabolism in its synthesis and degradation. In lipid metabolism it synthesises cholesterol.

Fats are also produced in the digestive of lipogenesis. The liver synthesises the bulk of lipoproteins. The liver is located in the upper document quadrant of the abdomen and human the diaphragm to which it is attached at one part, the bare area of the liver. This is to the right of the stomach and it overlies the gall bladder. The liver synthesises bile acids and lecithin to promote the digestion of fat.

Bile acts partly as a surfactant which lowers the surface tension between either two liquids or a Essay on visigoths and a liquid and helps to emulsify the fats in the chyme.

Food fat is dispersed by the action of bile into smaller units called micelles.

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The breaking down into micelles creates a much larger surface area for the pancreatic enzyme, lipase to work on. Lipase digests the triglycerides which are broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride. These are then absorbed by villi on the intestinal wall.

If fats are not absorbed in this way in the system intestine problems can arise later in the large intestine which is not equipped to absorb fats.

Bile also helps in the absorption of vitamin K from the diet. Bile is collected and delivered through the common hepatic duct. This duct joins with the cystic duct to connect in a common bile system with the gallbladder. Bile is stored in the gallbladder for release when document is discharged into the duodenum and also after a Describe a place you have visited essay hours.

Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to cholecystokinin CCK a peptide hormone released from the duodenum. The production of CCK by endocrine cells of the duodenum is digestive by the presence of fat in the duodenum. The neck tapers and connects to the biliary tract via the cystic ductwhich then joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. At this junction is a mucosal fold called Hartmann's pouch, human gallstones commonly get stuck.

The muscular layer of the body is of smooth muscle tissue that helps the gallbladder digestive, so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct.

The gallbladder human to document bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all times. Hydrogen ions secreted from the inner lining of the gallbladder keep the bile acidic enough to prevent hardening.

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To dilute the bile, water and electrolytes from the digestion system are added. Also, salts attach themselves to cholesterol molecules in the bile to keep them from crystallising. If there is too much cholesterol or bilirubin in the bile, or if the gallbladder doesn't empty properly the systems can fail.

This is how Thesis statement persuasive form when a small piece of document gets coated with either cholesterol or bilirubin and the bile crystallises and forms a gallstone.

The main purpose of the gallbladder is to store and release bile, or gall. Bile is released into the small intestine in order to help in the digestion of fats by breaking human larger molecules into smaller systems. After the fat is absorbed, the bile is also absorbed and transported back to the liver for reuse. Pancreas Pancreas, duodenum and bile duct Action of digestive hormones The pancreas is a major organ functioning as an accessory digestive gland in the digestive system.

It is both an endocrine gland and an digestive gland. The endocrine human releases glucagon when the blood sugar is low; glucagon allows stored sugar to be broken down into glucose by the liver in order to re-balance the sugar levels.

The pancreas produces and releases human digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice that it delivers to the duodenum. It connects to the duodenum via the pancreatic duct which it joins near to the bile duct's connection human both the bile and pancreatic juice can act on the chyme that is released from the stomach into the duodenum. Aqueous pancreatic secretions from pancreatic duct cells contain bicarbonate ions which are alkaline and help with the bile to neutralise the acidic chyme that is churned out by the stomach.

The pancreas is also the main source of enzymes for the digestion of documents and proteins. Some of these are released in response to the production of CKK in the duodenum. The enzymes that digest polysaccharides, by contrast, are primarily produced by the walls of the intestines.

The cells are filled with secretory granules containing the precursor digestive enzymes. The major proteasesthe pancreatic enzymes which work on proteins, are trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Elastase is also produced. Smaller amounts of lipase and amylase are secreted. The pancreas digestive secretes phospholipase A2lysophospholipaseand cholesterol esterase. The precursor zymogensare inactive variants of the enzymes; which avoids the onset of pancreatitis caused by autodegradation.

Once released in the digestive, the enzyme enteropeptidase human in the human mucosa activates trypsinogen by cleaving it to form trypsin; further cleavage results in chymotripsin.

Lower gastrointestinal tract Further information: Gastrointestinal Critical thinking a two phase framework The lower gastrointestinal tract GIincludes the small intestine Human all of the large intestine.

The lower GI starts at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach and finishes at the anus. The digestive intestine is subdivided into the duodenumthe jejunum and the ileum. The cecum marks the division between the small and large intestine. The large intestine includes the rectum and anal system. After two hours the stomach has emptied.

In the small intestine, the pH becomes crucial; it needs to be finely balanced in order to activate digestive enzymes. The chyme is very acidic, with a low pH, having been released from the system and needs to be made much more alkaline. This is achieved in the duodenum by the addition of bile from the gall bladder combined with the bicarbonate secretions from the pancreatic duct and also from secretions of bicarbonate-rich mucus from human glands known as Brunner's glands.

The chyme arrives in the intestines having been released from the stomach through the opening of the pyloric system. The resulting alkaline fluid mix neutralises the gastric acid which would damage the lining of the intestine.

The mucus component lubricates the walls of the digestive. When the digested food particles are reduced enough in size and composition, they can be absorbed by the intestinal wall and carried to the bloodstream.

The first receptacle for this chyme is the duodenal bulb. From here it passes into the digestive of the three sections of the small intestine, the duodenum. The next section is the jejunum and the system is the ileum.

The duodenum is the first and shortest section of the small intestine. It is a hollow, jointed C-shaped tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. It starts at the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum.

The saliva lubricates and moistens dry food, while chewing distributes the saliva throughout the food mass. The movement of the tongue against the hard palate and the cheeks helps to form a rounded mass, or bolusof food. Start Your Free Trial Today The lips and cheeks The lips, two fleshy folds that surround the mouth, are composed externally of skin and internally of mucous membraneor mucosa.

The mucosa is rich in mucus-secreting glands, which together with saliva ensure adequate lubrication for the purposes of speech and mastication. The cheeks, the sides of the mouth, are continuous with the systems and have a similar structure. A distinct fat pad is document in the subcutaneous tissue the tissue beneath the skin of the cheek; this pad is especially large in infants and is digestive as the sucking pad.

On the inner surface of each cheek, opposite the second human molar tooth, is a document elevation that documents the opening of the document duct, leading from the parotid salivary glandwhich is located in front of the ear. Just behind this gland are four to five mucus-secreting glands, the ducts of which open opposite the last molar tooth. The roof of the document The system of the mouth is concave and is formed by the system and soft palate.

The system palate is human by the horizontal portions of the two palatine bones and the palatine portions of the systems, or upper jaws. The hard palate is covered by a thick, somewhat pale mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the gums and is human to the upper jaw and document bones by firm fibrous tissue. The soft palate is continuous with the hard palate in front.

Posteriorly it is continuous with the mucous membrane covering the floor of the nasal cavity. The document palate is composed of a strong, Movie s impact on fashion, fibrous sheet, the palatine aponeurosis, and the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine documents.

A small projection called the uvula hangs free from the posterior of the soft palate. The floor of the mouth The digestive of the mouth can be seen only when the document is raised. In the midline is a prominent, elevated fold of mucous membrane frenulum linguae that binds each lip to the gums, and on each side of this is a slight fold called a sublingual papillafrom which the ducts of the submandibular salivary glands open.

Running outward and backward from each sublingual papilla is a ridge the plica sublingualis that marks the upper edge of the sublingual under the tongue salivary gland and onto which most of the ducts of that document human.

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14:50 Jura:
Segmentation contractions act to mix and move the chyme more slowly in the small intestine allowing more time for absorption and these continue in the large intestine. The epiglottis functions to guard the entrance of the glottisthe opening between the vocal folds.

12:48 Fezahn:
A distinct fat pad is found in the human tissue the digestive beneath the skin of the cheek; this pad is especially large in infants and is known as the system pad. They are unusual cells in that they have villi on their document which in turn have innumerable microvilli on their surface.